Glossary

Glossary 2018-03-20T06:03:22-08:00

Glossary

Terminology for the Glossary definitions
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A

Abaptiston
A cone-shaped trephine designed to avoid penetration of the brain when incising the skull
Abdominoplasty
Excision of abdominal fat and skin for cosmetic purposes.
Ablation
The removal, esp. of organs, abnormal growths, or harmful substances from the body by mechanical means, as by surgery
Acus
A needle, esp. one used in a surgical operation
Acusector
A needle for cutting tissue by means of a high-frequency electric current.
Adenectomy
Surgical removal of the adenoids
Aeration
Method of fluid removal by which absorbed water is “wicked away” by using warm air to circulate through the scope in an enclosed cabinet.
Air Pipe
Inserts directly into the light source and carries the air feed through the scope.
Allograft
A tissue or organ obtained from one member of a species and grafted to genetically dissimilar member of the same species. Also called “allotransplant, homograft, homotransplant.” Cf. “Autograftsyngraft, xenograft.”
Amputate
To cut off (all or part of a limb or digit of the body), as by surgery.
Anaplasty
Reconstruction or restoration, esp. by plastic surgery, of a lost or injured part.
Angioplasty
The repair of a blood vessel, as by inserting a balloon-tipped catheter to unclog it or by replacing part of the vessel with either a piece of the patient’s own tissue or a prosthetic device: Example: coronary angioplasty to widen an artery blocked by plaque
Appendectomy
Excision of the vermiform appendix.
Arteriotomy
The incision or opening into the lumen of an artery for the removal of a clot, embolus, or the like, or, formerly, for bloodletting
Arthroplasty
The Surgical repair of a joint or the fashioning of a movable joint, using the patient’s own tissue or an artificial replacement
Artificial Heart
Any of various four-chambered devices, modeled on the human heart, that pump blood by attachment to a power source and that are constructed for temporary external use or for implantation as a temporary or permanent heart replacement.
Artificial Kidney
A mechanical device that operates outside the body and substitutes for the kidney by removing waste products from the blood, Also called “hemodialyzer.” Cf Dialysis
Atherectomy
The removal of plaque from an artery by means of a tiny rotating cutting blade inserted through a catheter
Autograft
A tissue or organ that is grafted into a new position on the body of the individual from which it was removed. Also called ” autoplast, autotransplant.” Cf. allograftsyngraft, xenograft
Autologous
From the same organism: Example: and autologous graft
Automated Cleaner
A processing unit that utilizes highly automatic equipment for instrument cleaning and decontamination
Auxiliary Water Inlet
Auxiliary Water Inlet

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B

Balloon Angioplasty
A method of opening a clogged or narrowed blood vessel in which a small balloon is introduced into the vessel by means of a catheter and then inflated at the site of blockage.
Bending Section
Very flexible end of the scope approximately 5 inches long (varies by model). Thin rubber covering called the bending rubber cover the section. Movement of the bending section is controlled by the angulation mechanism.
Bikini Cut
A horizontal surgical incision in the lower abdomen, often used for a hysterectomy or a Cesarean delivery, so called because it leaves a less noticeable scar than does a vertical incision
Bioplastic
Plastic suitable for use as a biomaterial
Biopsy
The process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination.
Biopsy
The process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination.
Blepharoplasty
Plastic surgery of the eyelid, used to remove epicanthic folds, sagging tissue, or winkles around the eyes or to repair injury to the eyelid.
Bone Marrow Transplant
The technique in which a small amount of bone marrow is withdrawn by a syringe. from a donor’s pelvic bone and injected into a patient whose ability to make new blood cells has been impaired by a disease, as anemia or cancer, or by exposure to radiation
Bowel
The small and large intestine.
Buttonhole
A short, straight incision through the wall of a cavity or a canal
Bypass
surgical procedure in which a diseased or obstructed hollow organ is temporarily or permanently circumvented. Cf coronary bypassgastric bypass, heart-lung machine, intestinal bypass.

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C

Camera Control Unit
Known as the camera processing unit (CPU). The CCU provides the camera’s power supply. It converts the electronic information from the camera’s microchip into a video signal which is sent in turn to the equipment in the documentation and visualization system.
Cannula
A metal tube for insertion into the body to draw off fluid or to introduce medication.
Cardiectiomy
Excision of the heart
Cardiectomy
Excision of the cardiac section of the stomach
Cavatation
Transmission of ultrasonic waves through the cleaning solution in a mechanical process.
Cecum
A cul-de-sac constituting the proximal or distal part of the large intestine.
Centesis
A puncture into a body cavity, usually to remove fluid.
Cesarean
Also called Cesarean section, c-section. “An operation by which a fetus is taken from the uterus by cutting through the walls of the abdomen and uterus.
Cheiloplasty
Plastic surgery of the lip
Chemopallidectomy
An operation for treating Parkinson’s disease and certain other diseases characterized by muscular rigidity, consisting of destroying a specific part of the corpus striatum by injection it with a chemical, usually alcohol.
Chemosurgery
The use of chemical substances to destroy diseased or unwanted tissue.
Cholangiography
Radiographic examination of the bile ducts.
Cholecystectomy
Removal of the gallbladder
Circumcise
To remove the prepuce of (a male), esp. as a religious rite
Circumcision
An act, instance, or the rite of circumcising.
Coapt
To bring close together: Example: The Surgeoncoapted the edges of the wound.
Cochlear Implant
A device consisting of microelectrodes that deliver electrical stimuli directly to the auditory nerve when surgically implanted into the cochlea, enabling a person with sensorineural deafness to hear. Also called “artificial ear.”
Colectomy
The removal of all or part of the colon or large intestine
Colon
The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food.
Colonoscopy
A procedure whereby a physician inserts a viewing tube (colonoscope) into the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the colon. During colonoscopypolyps can be removed, bleeding can be cauterized, and a biopsy can be performed if abnormal areas of the colon are seen.
Colotomy
Incision or opening of the colon
Commissurotomy
The incision of a band of commissures, esp. of miltral fibers, to correct mitral stenosis, Cf. valvulotomy.
Common Bile Duct
The duct formed by the juncture of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct
Compressor
An instrument for compressing a part of the body.
Cordotomy
The surgical severance of certain nerve fibers of the spinal cord to alleviate intractable pain
Coronary Bypass
The surgical revascularization of the heart, using healthy blood vessels of the patient, performed to circumvent obstructed coronary vessels and improve blood flow
Corrosion
The slow destruction of the texture or substance of a metal.
Cosmetic Surgery
Plastic surgery for improving a person’s appearance by restoration of damaged areas of skin, removal of wrinkles or blemishes, etc
Costectomy
Excision of part of all of a rib. Also called “thoracectomy
Costomotme
An instrument, as shears or a knife, for incising or dividing a rib, as in costotomy
Craniotomy
The operation of opening the skull, usually for operations on the brain.
Cryoextraction
The surgical removal of a cataract with a cryoprobe
Cryoprobe
An instrument used in cryosurgery, having a supercooled tip for applying extreme cold to diseased tissue in order to remove or destroy it.
Cryosurgery
The use of extreme cold to destroy tissue for therapeutic purpose
Curette
scoop-shaped surgical instrument for removing tissue from body cavities, as the uterus
Cutdown
The incision of a superficial vein in order to effect direct insertion of a catheter.
Cyclotome
A type of scalpel for performing a cyclotomy
Cyclotomy
Incision of the ciliary muscle
Cystectomy
Excision of a cyst or bladder, usually from the urinary bladder
Cystic Duct
The tube that connects the gall bladder to the common bile duct.

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D

Debride
To clean (a wound) by debridement
Debridement
Surgical removal of foreign matter and dead tissue from a wound
Decerebrate
To remove the cerebrum
Decompression
The procedure of relieving increased cranial, cardiac, or orbital pressure
Decontamination
The process of rendering items safe for handling by personnel who are not wearing protective attire.
Decorticate
To remove the cortex from (an organ or structure).
Decorticate
To remove the cortex from (an organ or structure).
Decortication
The removal of the cortex, the enveloping membrane, or a fibrinous covering from an organ or structure
Dehiscence
The bursting open of a surgically closed wound
Depressor
An instrument for pressing down a protruding part, as a tongue depressor.
Dermatome
A mechanical instrument for cutting thin sections of skin for grafting
Dilator
An instrument for dilating body canals, orifices, or cavities
Disinfect
The process of killing pathogenic organisms or of rendering inert.
Distal end
Assembly at tip of bending section which included the air/water nozzle, biopsy channel opening, light guide fiber bundle, and objective lens.
Divulse
To tear away or apart, as distinguished from cut or dissect.
Divulsion
A tearing apart; violent separation
Drain
A material or appliance for maintaining the opening of a wound to permit free exit of fluids
Drainage
The drainage of fluids, as bile, urine, etc., from the body, or of pus and other diseased products from a wound
Duodenojejunostom
The formation of an artificial connection between the duodenum and the jejunum
Duodenum
The shortest widest and most fixed portion of the small intestine, taking an almost circular course from the pyloric valve of the stomach to its starting point at the jejunum.

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E

EGD
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Electrocautery
The application of a needle or snare heated by electrical current for the destruction of tissue, as for removal or ablation of warts or polyps.
Electrosurgery
The use in surgery of an electric instrument, as an acusector, or of an electric current, as in electrocoagulation; surgical diathemy
Embryectomy
Removal of an embryo
Embryotomy
Dismemberment of a fetus, when natural delivery is impossible, in order to effect its removal
Encephalotomy
Surgical incision or dissection of the brain
Endarterectomy
The surgical stripping of a fat-encrusted, thickened arterial lining so as to open or widen the artery for improved blood circulation
Endoscope
A lighted optical instrument that is used to get a deep look inside the body. An endoscope, which may be rigid or flexible, can be used to examine organs, such as the throat or esophagus. Specialized endoscopes are named for where they are intended to look. Examples include the cystoscope (bladder), nephroscope (kidney), bronchoscope (bronchi), laryngoscope (larynx), otoscope (ear), arthroscope (joint), laparoscope (abdomen), and gastrointestinal endoscopes.
Endoscopy
The visualization of the interior of organs and cavities of the body with an endoscope.
Engraft
(Of living tissue) to become grafted
Enterectomy
Excision of part of the intestine
Enteroscopy
The use of a flexible instrument (a “scope”) to examine the small intestine, a very long hollow tube located between the stomach and colon (large intestine) and made up of the duodenumjejunum, and ileum.
Enucleate
To remove (a kernel, tumor, eyeball, etc.) From its enveloping cover
Enzymatic Detergent
A cleaning agent that destroys protein molecules and contains wetting agents.
ERCP
(Endoscope Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography) Using a JF model scope, radiographically opaque dye is injected through a cannula inserted in the endoscope and into the common bile duct and/or pancreatic duct. X-ray is then taken as the dye travels through theses ducts.
Ethylene Oxide
A colorless toxic gas used to sterilize heat and moisture-sensitive items that cannot withstand steam sterilization.
Eviscerate
To remove the contents of (a body organ).
Excise
To cut out or off, as a tumor
Excision
The surgical removal of a foreign body or of tissue
Exfoliate
To remove the surface of (a bone, the skin, etc.) In scales or laminae.
Exfoliation
The act, state, or process of exfoliating
Explore
To investigate into, esp. mechanically, as with a probe
Exscind
To cut out or off
Exsect
To cut out.
Extension
The act of pulling the broken or dislocated part of a limb in a direction from the trunk, in order to bring the ends of the bone into their natural situation.
Exteriorize
To expose (an internal structure) temporarily outside the body, for observation, surgery, or experimentation
Extirpate
To pull up by or as if by the roots; root up: Example: to extirpate an unwanted hair.
Eye Tuck
Eyelift.

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F

Fenestrated
An instrument having window like openings. An example would be fenestrated forceps that have hole or openings in the cup that allow for large biopsies.
Fiber optics
The transmission of light or an image along flexible bundles of coated glass fibers that propagate light by internal.
Fistula
An opening made into a hollow organ, as the bladder or eyeball, for drainage
Fixator
A device incorporating a metal bar and pins that is used in stabilizing difficult bone fractures.
Flap
A portion of skin or flesh that is partially separated from the body and may subsequently be transposed by grafting
Fleam
A kind of lancet, as for opening veins.
Forceps
An instrument, as pincers or tongs, for seizing and holding objects, as in surgical operations.
Freeze
To render part of the body insensitive to pain or slower in its function by artificial means.
Fundus
Upper most hoodlike portion of the stomach.

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G

Gag
To fasten open the jaws of, as in surgical operations.
Ganglionectomy
The excision of a ganglion.
Gas Plasma
A “forth state of matter” in which atoms have broken down to form free electrons and more or less stripped nuclei.
Gastrectomy
Partial or total excision of the stomach.
Gastric Bypass
Surgical procedure by which all or part of the stomach is circumvented by anastomosis to the small intestine, performed to overcome obstruction or in the treatment of morbid obesity. Also called “gastroplasty.”
Gastroenterology
The study of disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, intestines, gall bladder, liver and pancreas.
Gastroenterostomy
The making of a new passage between the stomach and the duodenum (gastroduodenostomy) or, esp., the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy).
Gastroesophageal
Pertaining to both the stomach and the esophagus, as in the gastroesophageal junction, the place where the esophagus connects to the stomach.
Gastroplasty
Any plastic surgery on the stomach.
Gastrostomy
The construction of an artificial opening from the stomach through the abdominal wall, permitting intake of food or drainage of gastric contents.
General
(of anesthesia or and anesthetic) causing loss of consciousness and abolishing sensitivity to pain throughout the body.
Glutaraldehyde
A high level disinfectant and chemostrilant that is effective against vegetative gram-positive, gram-negative and acid fast viruses and some fungi.
Graft
A portion of living tissue surgically transplanted from one part of an individual to another, or from one individual to another, for its adhesion and growth.
Gyrectomy
Excision of a cerebral gyrus.

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H

Hair Implant
The insertion of synthetic fibers or human hair into the scalp to cover baldness. Cf. Hair Transplant.
Hernioplasty
An operation for the repair of a hernia.
Herniorrhaphy
Correction of a hernia by a suturing procedure.
Heteroplasty
The repair of lesions with tissue from another individual or species.
High Level Disinfection
“The killing of all pathogens, except large numbers of bacterial spores. A practical mean of achieving high level disinfection is to use disinfectants instructions for killing mycobacterium tuberculosis.”
Hymenotomy
Incision of the hymen.
Hypophysectomy
Excision of the pituitary gland.
Hysterectomy
Excision of the uterus.

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I

Ileocolostomy
The surgical formation of an artificial opening between the ileum and the colon.
Ileostomy
The construction of an artificial opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall, permitting drainage of the contents of the small intestine.
Ileum
The third part of the small intestine, extending from the junction with the jejunum to the ileocecal opening.
Imbrication
Overlapping of layers of tissue in the closure of wounds or in the correction of defects.
Implantable
Pertaining to a device, as a micro-pump or porous polymer membrane, for surgical insertion under the skin for the controlled release of a drug.
In Utero Surgery
Surgery performed on a fetus while it is in the womb.
Incision
A cutting into, esp. for surgical purposes.
Inosculate
To unite by openings, as arteries in anastomosis.
Insertion tube
Commonly referred to as the connecting tube, describes entire flexible working section of instrument. Usually marked in medical record so the physician knows how far scope is inserted into patient.
Intestinal Bypass
The surgical circumvention, by anastomosis, of a diseased portion of the intestine; also sometimes used to reduce nutrient absorption in morbidly obese patients.
Intestine
The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion. It consists of the small and large intestines.
Iridectome
A slender cutting instrument used in performing an iridectomy.
Iridectomize
To perform an iridectomy on
Iridectomy
Excision of part of the iris.

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J

Jejunectomy
Excision of part or all of the jejunum.
Jejunum
The portion of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum.

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K

Keratectomy
Excision of part of the cornea.
Keratoplasty
Plastic surgery performed upon the cornea, esp. a corneal transplantation.
Keratotomy
Incision of the cornea.

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L

Laminectomy
The surgical removal of part of the posterior arch of a vertebra to provide access to the spinal canal, as for the excision of a ruptured disk.
Lancet
A small surgical instrument, usually sharp-point and two-edged, for making small incisions, opening abscesses, etc.
Laparectomy
Excision of strips of the abdominal wall and suturing of the wounds so as to correct laxity of abdominal muscles.
Laparoscope
A flexible fiberoptic instrument, passed thorugh a small incision in the abdominal wall and equipped with biopsy forceps, an obturator, scissors or the like, with which to examine the abdominal cavity or perform minor surgery.
Laparoscopy
Examination of the abdominal cavity or performance of minor abdominal surgery using a laparoscope.
Laparotome
A cutting instrument for performing a laparotomy.
Laparotomy
Incision through the abdominal wall.
Large bowel
Another name for the large intestine.
Laryngectomy
Excision of part or all of the larynx.
Laser Surgery
The surgical use of lasers.
Laserscope
surgical instrument that employs a laser beam to destroy diseased tissue or to create small channels; used to open clogged arteries and, in ophthalmology, to treat patients with glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.
Lavage
The process of washing out an organ, usually the bladder, bowel, paranasal sinuses, or stomach for therapeutic purposes.
Levator
An instrument used to raise a depressed part of the skull.
Ligation
The act of ligating, esp. of surgically tying up a bleeding artery.
Light Guide Connector Section
Commonly referred to as the light guide connector or connector. This section connects to the light source.
Light Guide Tube
Commonly referred to as the LG prong. It inserts directly into the light source and carries light through the scope.
Lipectomy
The surgical removal of fatty tissue. Cf. suction lipectomy.
Lithotomy
Surgery to remove one or more stones from an organ or duct.
Lithotrite
An instrument for performing lithotrity.
Lithotrity
The operation of crushing stone in the urinary bladder into particles small enough to be voided.
Lobectomy
Excision of a lobe of an organ or gland.
Lumen
A cavity or the channel within any organ or structure of the body.
Lumpectomy
The surgical removal of a breast cyst or tumor.
Lymphadenectomy
The excision of one or more lymph nodes, usually as a procedure in the surgical removal or destruction of a cancer.

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M

Mammoplasty
Reconstruction or alteration in size or contour of the breast.
Mastectomy
The operation of removing all or part of the breast or mamma. Also called “mammectomy.”
Mastoidectomy
The removal of part of a mastoid process, usually for draining a infection.
Mastopexy
Fixation of a pendulous breast.
Meniscectomy
Plastic surgery to correct a functional or cosmetic deformity of the chin.
Microprobe
A miniature probe for use in microsurgery.
Microsurgery
Any of various surgical procedures performed under magnification and with small specialized instruments, permitting very delicate operations, as the reconnection of severed blood vessels and nerves.
Minilaparotomy
Laparotomy with a small incision into the abdomen, often no more than 1 in. (2.5 cm), used sep. for tubal ligation.
Myomectomy
The surgical removal of a myoma, esp. the excision of a fibroid tumor from the uterus.
Myotom
Surgical incision of the tympanic membrane.

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N

Necrotomy
The dissection of dead bodies.
Nephrectomy
Excision of a kidney.
Nephrolithotomy
Incision or opening of a kidney pelvis for removal of a calculus.
Nephrotomy
Incision into the kidney, as for the removal of a calculus.
Neurectomy
The removal of part or all of a nerve.
Neurolysis
Separation of adhesions from a nerve fiber.
Neurosurgery
Surgery of the brain or other nerve tissue.
Neurotomy
The cutting of a nerve, as to relieve neuralgia.

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O

OES
The “Olympus Endoscopy System” introduced in 1983. These scopes were the first immersible scopes introduced in the market. All scope made prior to this time are now referred to as Pre- OES. Scopes currently made that are not immersible are referred to as NON-OES.
Oophorectomy
The operation of removing one or both ovaries; ovariectomy.
Open-Heart Surgery
Surgery performed on the exposed heart while a heart-lung machine pumps and oxygenated the blood and diverts it from the heart.
Operable
That which can be treated by a surgical operation. Cf “inoperable”
Operated
To have performed a surgical procedure.
Operation
A procedure aimed at restoring or improving the health of a patient, as by correcting a malformation, removing diseased parts, implanting new parts, etc.
Orchiectomy
Excision of one or both testes; castration.
Orthognathic Surgery
The surgical correction of deformities or malpositions of the jaw.
Ostectomy
Excision of part or all of a bone.
Osteoclasis
The fracturing of a bone to correct deformity.
Osteoclast
An instrument for effecting osteoclasis.
Osteoplastic
Pertaining to osteoplasty.
Osteotome
A double-beveled chisel like instrument for cutting or dividing bone.
Osteotomy
The dividing of a bone, or the excision of part of it.
Ostomy
Any of various surgical procedures, as a colostomy, in which an artificial opening is made so as to permit the drainage of waste products either into an appropriate organ or to the outside of the body.
Otoplasty
Plastic surgery of the external ear.
Ovariectomy
The operation of removing one or both ovaries, ophorectomy.
Ovariotomy
Incision into or removal of an ovary.

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P

Pancreatectomy
Excision of part or all of the pancreas.
Pancreatotomy
Incision of the pancreas.
Papilla of Vater
The opening into the duodenum of the common bile duct and the major pancreatic duct.
Paracentesis
Puncture of the wall of a cavity to drain off fluid. Also called “tapping.”
Parathyroldectomy
The excision of a parathyroid gland.
Pathogen
Any micro-organism capable of producing disease.
Penetrating
Noting a wound that pierces the skin, esp. a deep wound entering an organ or body cavity.
Peracetic Acid
A compound used in a buffered solution in a system for “just in time” automated chemical sterilization. Used for delicate and heat sensitive instruments.
Perfuse
To pass (fluid) through blood vessels or the lymphatic system.
Perfusion
The passage of fluid through the lymphatic system or blood vessels to an organ or a tissue.
Pharyngectomy
Excision of part or all of the pharynx.
Phlebotome
A cutting instrument used for phlebotomy.
Plastic
Concerned with or pertaining to the remedying or restoring of malformed, injured, or lost parts: Example: a plastic operation.
Plastic Surgery
The branch of surgery dealing with the repair or replacement of malformed, injured, or lost organs or tissues of the body, chiefly by the transplant of living tissue.
Plicate
To perform plication on.
Plug
A patch of scalp with viable hair follicles that is used as a graft for a bald part of the head. Cf. “hair transplant
Pneumonectomy
Excision of part or all of a lung.
Polyp
Any mass of tissue that bulges or projects outward or upward from a surface by growing from a broad base or a slender stalk.
Preparation
A specimen, as an animal body, prepared for scientific examination, dissection, etc.
Prepare
To put in proper condition or readiness: Example: to prepare a patient for surgery.
Prostatectomy
Excision of part or all of the prostate gland.
Prosthesis
A device, either external or implanted, that substitutes for or supplements a missing or defective part of the body.
Prosthetics
The branch of surgery or of dentistry that deals with replacement of missing parts with artificial structures. Cf. “prosthodontics.”
Psychosurgery
Treatment of mental disorders by means of brain surgery. Cf. “lobotomy.”
Ptyalectasis
Spontaneous or surgical dilatation of a salivary duct.
Ptyalectasis
Spontaneous or surgical dilatation of a salivary duct.
Pulmonary
Having to do with the lungs.
Purse-String Suture
A suture for a circular opening, stitched around the edge, that closes it when pulled.
Pyloroplasty
The surgical alteration of the pylorus, usually a widening to facilitate the passage of food from the stomach to the duodenum.
Pyloroplasty
The surgical alteration of the pylorus, usually a widening to facilitate the passage of food from the stomach to the duodenum.
Pylorus
The muscular tissue surrounding and controlling the outlet of the stomach into the duodenum.

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R

Radio Knife
An electrical instrument for cutting tissue that by searing severed blood vessels seals them and prevents bleeding.
Reconstructive Surgery
The restoration of appearance and function following injury or disease, or the correction of congenital defects, using the techniques of plastic surgery.
Rectum
he last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the anus.
Reimplantation
The surgical restoration of a tooth, organ, limb. Or other structure to its original site.
Remiplant
To restore (a tooth, organ, limb, or other structure) to its original site.
Replant
To reattach, as a severed arm, finger, or toe, esp. with the use of microsurgery to reconnect nerves and blood vessels.
Reposition
Replacement, as of a bone.
Resect
An instrument or appliance for drawing back an impeding part, as the edge of an incision.
Revascularization
The restoration of the blood circulation of an organ or area, achieved by unblocking obstructed or disrupted blood vessels or by surgically implanting replacements.
Revascularize
To surgically improve the blood circulation of (an organ or area of the body).
Rhinoplasty
Plastic surgery of the nose.
Rhizotomy
The surgical section or cutting of the spinal nerve roots, usually posterior or sensory roots, to eliminate pain.
Rhytidectomy
Face-lift.
Right/Left Angulation Control Knob
Controls right and left movement of the bending section. Maximum movement varies by model.
Right/Left Angulation Lock
Locks right’ left angulation control knob in place, thus holding angle of deflection of the bending section in place. This is useful for both photography and retrieving biopsies.
Rongeur
A strongly constructed instrument with a sharp-edge, scoop-shaped tip, used for gouging out bone.

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S

Salpingectomy
Excision of the fallopian tube.
Salpingostomy
The formation of an artificial opening into a fallopian tube.
Scalpel
A small, light, usually straight knife used in surgical and anatomical operations and dissections.
Scapulary
A shoulder dressing that keeps the shoulder or another bandage in place.
Scarificator
surgical instrument for scarifying.
Scarify
To make scratches or superficial incisions in (the skin, a wound, etc.), as in vaccination.
Sclerotheraphy
Treatment involving the injection of a sclerosing solution into vessels or tissue.
Sclerotome
An instrument for use in performing a sclerotomy.
Scoop
A spoonlike apparatus for removing substances or foreign objects from the body.
Section
To make an incision.
Septectomy
Excision of part or all of a septum, esp. the nasal septum.
Sequestrectomy
The removal of dead spicules or portions, esp. of bone.
Set
To put (a broken or dislocated bone) back in position.
Seton
A thread or the like inserted beneath the skin to provide drainage or to guide subsequent passage of a tube.
Sex Change
The alteration, by surgery and hormone treatments, of a person’s morphological sex characteristics to approximate those of the opposite sex.
Shunt
A channel through which blood or other bodily fluid is diverted from its normal path by surgicalreconstruction or by a synthetic tube.
Sigmoidoscopy
A procedure in which a physician inserts a viewing tube (sigmoidoscope) into the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the lower colon and rectum. If an abnormal area is detected, a biopsy can be performed.
Skin Graft
Skin used for transplanting in skin grafting.
Snare
A wire noose for removing tumors or the like by the roots or at the base.
Sound
To examine, as the urinary bladder, with a sound.
Speculum
An instrument fro rendering a part accessible to observation, as by enlarging an orifice.
Sphincter
A muscle that encircles an organ or orifice in such a way that its contraction constricts or closes the lumen or orifice. Therefore, a sphincterotomy is the cutting or opening of a sphincter such as the papilla to allow instrument passage or ductal drain.
Splenectomy
Excision of removal of the spleen. Also called “lienectomy.”
Sponge
A sterile surgical dressing of absorbent material, usually cotton gauze, for wiping or absorbing pus, blood, or other fluids during a surgical operation.
Spud
An instrument having a dull flattened blade for removing substances or foreign bodies from certain parts of the body, as wax from the ear.
Stapedectomy
A micro surgical procedure to relieve deafness by replacing the stapes of the ear with a prosthetic device.
Stent
A device used for supporting a body opening, vessel or tubes.
Stoma
An artificial opening between two hollow organs or between one hollow organ and the outside of the body, constructed to permit the passage of body fluids or waste products.
Strip
To remove (a vein) by pulling it inside out through a small incision, using a long, hooked instrument.
Strumectomy
Excision of part or all of a goiter.
Suction and Curettage
A technique involving extraction of the fetus through a suction tube, used to perform abortions during the early stages of pregnancy.
Suction Lipectomy
The removal of fatty tissue by making a small incision in the skin, loosening the fat layer, and withdrawing it by suction. Cf. “lipectomy.”
Surgeon
A physician who specializes in surgery.
Surgery
The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or injury. Surgerycan involve cutting, abrading, suturing, or otherwise physically changing body tissues and organs.
Surgery
The art, practice, or work of treating diseases, injuries, or deformities by manual or operative procedures; Treatment, as an operation, performed by a Surgeon.
Surgical
Pertaining to or involving surgery or Surgeons.
Surgical Needle
A needle for suturing.
Surgicenter
surgical facility, not based in a hospital, where minor surgery is performed on an outpatient basis.
Sympathectomy
Surgery that interrupts a nerve pathway of the sympathetic or involuntary nervous system.
Syndesmectomy
Excision of part of a ligament.
Syngraft
A tissue or organ transplanted from one member of a species to another, genetically identical member of the species, as a kidney transplanted from one identical twin to the other. Also called “isograft, isoplastic graft, syngeneic graft” Cf. “allograftautograft, xenograft.”

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T

Tap
The withdrawal of fluid: Example” spinal tap.
Taxis
The replacing of a displaced part, or the reducing of a hernia or the like, by manipulation without cutting.
Tenaculum
A small sharp-pointed hook set in a handle, used for seizing and picking up parts in operations and dissections.
Tenotomy
The cutting of a tendon.
Tent
A roll or pledget, usually of soft absorbent material, as lint or gauze, for dilating an orifice, keeping a wound open, etc.
Thermocoagulation
The coagulation of tissue by heat-producing high-frequency electric currents, used therapeutically to remove small growths or to create specific lesions in the brain.
Thoracoplasty
The operation removing selected portions of the ribs to collapse part of the underlying lung or an abnormal pleural space, usually in the treatment of tuberculosis.
Thoracostomy
The construction of an artificial opening through the chest wall, usually for the drainage of fluid or the release of an abnormal accumulation of air.
Thoracotomy
Incision into the chest cavity.
Throidectomy
Excision of all or a part of the thyroid gland.
Thrombectomy
Surgical removal of a blood clot from a blood vessel.
Thymectomy
Surgical removal of the thymus gland.
Thyrotome
An instrument for cutting the thyroid cartilage.
Thyrotomy
Incision or splitting of the thyroid cartilage; laryngotomy. Cf. “thyroidectomy.”
Tracheostomy
The construction of an artificial opening through the neck into the trachea, usually for the relief of difficulty in breathing.
Trocar
A sharp-point instrument enclosed in a cannula, used for withdrawing fluid from a cavity, as the abdominal cavity.
Tympanoplasty
Reconstruction of the eardrum and the bones of the middle ear.

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U

Ultrasonic Cleaner
A processing unit that transmits ultrasonic waves through the cleaning solution in a mechanical process known as cavatation.
Up/down Angulation Knob
Controls up and down movement of the bending section. Maximum movement varies by model.
Up/down Angulation Lock
Locks up/down angulation control knob in place, thus holding the angle of deflection of the bending section in place. This is useful for both photography and retrieving biopsies.
Urethrectomy
Excision or removal of part or all of the urethra.
Urethrostyomy
The construction of an artificial opening from the urethra through the perineum, permitting the passage of urine.
Urethrotomy
An operation to cut a stricture of the urethra.
Uvulectomy
Excision of the uvula.

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V

Vagotomy
The surgical severance of vagus nerve fibers, performed to reduce acid secretion by the stomach. Cf. “vaginal block.”
Valvulotomy
The opening, slitting, or fracturing of a heart valve.
Varicocelectomy
The surgical removal or ligation of varicose veins in the scrotal sac.
Varicotomy
Surgical removal of a varicose vein.
Vasectomy
Excision of the vas deferens, or of a portion of it: performed to effect sterility in men.
Vasoligation
Ligation of the vas deferens.
Vasotomy
Incision or opening of the vas deferens.
Vasovasostomy
The reversal of a vasectomy, performed by surgical reconnection of the severed ends of the vas deferens.
Venting Connector
Commonly referred to as the ETO valve. This allows for connection of the ETO vent cap or leakage tester to the scope.

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X

Xyster
surgical instrument fro scraping bones.